What Causes Type 2 Diabetes ?
Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a problem with one’s body that causes blood glucose (sugar) levels to rise higher than normal. This is also called hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.
If one has type 2 diabetes the body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, pancreas makes extra insulin to make up for it. But, over time it isn’t able to keep up and can’t make enough insulin to keep blood glucose at normal levels.
Genetics Play a Role in Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes can be hereditary. That doesn’t mean that if your mother or father has (or had) type 2 diabetes, you’re guaranteed to develop it; instead, it means that you have a greater chance of developing type 2.
Researchers know that you can inherit a risk for type 2 diabetes, but it’s difficult to pinpoint which genes carry the risk.
Lifestyle Is Very Important, Too
Genes do play a role in type 2 diabetes, but lifestyle choices are also important. You can, for example, have a genetic mutation that may make you susceptible to type 2, but if you take good care of your body, you may not develop diabetes.
Say that two people have the same genetic mutation. One of them eats well, watches their cholesterol, and stays physically fit, and the other is overweight (BMI greater than 25) and inactive. The person who is overweight and inactive is much more likely to develop type 2 diabetes because certain lifestyle choices greatly influence how well your body uses insulin.
Type 2 diabetes risk factors:-
- Obesity or being overweight: Diabetes has long been linked to obesity and being overweight. Research at the Harvard School of Public Health in the US showed that the single best predictor of type 2 diabetes is being obese or overweight. Obesity and diabetes are both becoming more common worldwide. The most-used measure for obesity is BMI, which stands for body mass index. BMI is a ratio, and can be determined using standard tables of height and weight. A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight. A BMI of 30 or higher defines obesity.
- Impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose: Prediabetes is a form of diabetes that’ is sometimes called impaired glucose tolerance. It can be diagnosed with a simple blood Prediabetes is a major risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes.
- Ethnic background: Type 2 diabetes occurs more often in south Asian, African-Caribbean or black African, and Chinese people.
- High blood pressure: Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a major risk factor for diabetes. High blood pressure is generally defined as being consistently 140/90 mm Hg or higher.
- History of gestational diabetes: If you developed diabetes while you were pregnant, you’ve had what is called gestational diabetes. Having had gestational diabetes puts you at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
- Family history: Having a family history of diabetes — a parent or sibling who’s been diagnosed with this condition — increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
- Age: Some doctors advise anyone over 40 to be screened for diabetes. That’s because increasing age puts you at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It’s important to remember, though, that people can develop diabetes at any age. If you’re over 40 and overweight or if you have symptoms of diabetes, talk to your doctor about a simple screening test.
- Lack of exercise:Physical activity has many benefits—one of them being that it can help you avoid type 2 diabetes, if you’re susceptible.
- Unhealthy meal planning choices:A meal plan filled with high-fat foods and lacking in fiber (which you can get from grains, vegetables, and fruits) increases the likelihood of type 2 diabetes.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes can develop over time, and the symptoms may not be obvious straight away. You may not have diabetes, but it is best to check. The sooner diabetes is diagnosed and treatment or other measures are taken, the sooner the damaging effects of high blood sugar (glucose) can be reduced.
- Increased thirst and frequent urination.Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink and urinate more than usual.
- Increased hunger.Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger.
- Weight loss.Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine.
- If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable.
- Blurred vision.If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus.
- Slow-healing sores or frequent infections.Type 2 diabetes affects your ability to heal and resist infections.
- Areas of darkened skin.Some people with type 2 diabetes have patches of dark, velvety skin in the folds and creases of their bodies — usually in the armpits and neck. This condition, called acanthosis nigricans, may be a sign of insulin resistance.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS):Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) also raises the risk for type 2 diabetes because it’s related to insulin resistance. In PCOS, many cysts form in your ovaries, and one possible cause is insulin resistance. If you have PCOS, that means you may be insulin resistant and therefore at risk for developing type 2 diabetes.
Lifestyle and home remedies
Careful management of type 2 diabetes can reduce your risk of serious even life-threatening complications. Consider these tips:
- Commit to managing your diabetes.
- Eat healthy to keep diabetes under check.
- Schedule a yearly physical examination and regular eye examinations.
- Keep your immunizations up to date.
- Take care of your teeth.
- Pay attention to your feet.
- Keep your blood pressure and cholesterol under control.
- If you smoke or use other types of tobacco, ask your doctor to help you quit.
- If you drink alcohol, do so responsibly.
Healthy lifestyle choices can help you prevent type 2 diabetes. Even if you have diabetes in your family, diet and exercise can help you prevent the disease. If you’ve already received a diagnosis of diabetes, you can use healthy lifestyle choices to help prevent complications. And if you have prediabetes, lifestyle changes can slow or halt the progression from prediabetes to diabetes.